From OMAF Field Crop Report
Canola/Edible Beans: Brian Hall
Canola planting is complete in most areas with early plantings at the 2-4 leaf stage. Where heavy rainfall has occurred emergence has been variable. Plant populations are fair to average (4-8 plants per square foot) and a few replants have occurred due to weather related stress and flea beetle damage. Weed control is a priority. Spray weeds prior to 5 leaf stage of canola to minimize yield loss.
Edible bean planting has started but less than 10% of intended acres are planted. Broadcasting a small amount of nitrogen (34– 45 kg N/ha or 30-40 lb N/ac) at planting will encourage rapid vegetative growth, canopy closure and stimulates root growth which aids in overcoming stress caused by root rot or other factors. The safe rate of banded fertilizer is 30 kg N/ha (27 lbs N/ac) or a total of 91 kg (80 lbs/ac) nitrogen and potash. Do not seed place fertilizer as it increases the risk of injury.
Cereals: Peter Johnson
Recent rainfall was critical for pollination and grain fill of the winter wheat crop. Temperatures have remained cool, resulting in an extremely short wheat crop. Straw yields will be reduced, although height is not a good predictor of straw yield. Frost injury continues to be reported. A few fields have been destroyed in the Thamesville area, with reports of sterility in sporadic heads (1 to 5%) from Glencoe-Exeter. The timing for Fusarium fungicides was perfect across the southwest this week and is moving north and east. Fusarium risk has fluctuated daily. Risk changes rapidly as weather forecasts change and actual weather is recorded. Foliar diseases are well controlled by Fusarium fungicides, so yield is often increased even without Fusarium developing. Armyworms have been reported at low to moderate levels from Harrow to Woodstock. Scout! If 5 armyworm are found per square foot and are less than 1” (2.5 cm) in length, control is warranted. See www.fieldcropnews.com/?p=7249
Corn: Greg Stewart
The vast majority of the frost damaged corn has recovered and is greening up. The corn in an area from Highgate to Bothwell was the hardest hit. Approximately 1000 acres were replanted. Fields planted prior to May 5th on sandy soils were impacted the most. The main areas affected were the sand knolls which were very dry and the low lying organic (muck) soil areas where low temperatures killed the growing point even though it was still below the soil surface. Some frost damaged plants are showing the typical bunched tissue or “shepherds hook”. Normally corn plants will grow through this and be productive but increased plant to plant variability will have some negative impact on yields. Wet and windy conditions have made herbicide applications challenging. Weed control is presently the most economically important job on most farms. Some initial results from soil nitrate testing are showing lower residual N levels than normal. Sidedressers can use the Pre-Sidedress Nitrate Test to help determine the impact of weather and other factors on N application rates. The complete 2013 Soil N Survey can be viewed at www.fieldcropnews.com/?p=7305.
Forages/Pastures: Joel Bagg/Jack Kyle
Forages: First-cut yields are variable, depending on location and management. Rains have delayed harvest, increasing yields but decreasing quality. In wetter areas, some haylage was rain-damaged and fields have been “rutted”. Grasses are more advanced in maturity than alfalfa. With tight forage supplies, and high land and forage costs, reducing fermentation dry matter losses (shrink) and improving bunklife and forage quality by using a proven haylage inoculant easily pays for itself. (Silage Inoculants (www.fieldcropnews.com/?p=7159 ). Alfalfa weevil is still feeding in some areas. Where populations are high, scout to determine if larvae feeding of 2nd cut regrowth warrants spraying. (www.fieldcropnews.com/?p=3108) Armyworm is beginning to be reported in some hayfields. Control is warranted when 5 or more larvae (smaller than 1 inch) per square foot are found, or 2 – 3 larvae in new seedings.
www.bit.ly/11rGJsD. Making “baleage” can provide quality forage by reducing the risk of rain damage in shorter harvest windows. However, the risk of spoilage can be frustrating to novices. There is little room to cut corners. Be sure to use dense bales and enough plastic! Avoid wrapping haylage that was rained-on. (www.fieldcropnews.com/?p=3531)
Pastures: Soil moisture levels are very good which has resulted in excellent growth. Pastures that have been grazed short (less than 7.5 cm or 3inches) need to be rested and given an opportunity to re-grow or they will not be productive during the remainder of the growing season. Applying nitrogen to pastures will stimulate improved productivity and forage quality, 40 kg/ha of actual nitrogen is the recommended rate for grass based pastures. On pastures where the grass has headed and is mature consider clipping or making hay to stimulate new growth.
Soybeans: Horst Bohner
Fields seeded during the first half of May have emerged well and are growing rapidly. Some fields are up to the 3rd trifoliate leaf stage. Heavy downpours have caused emergence issues in fields seeded over the last two to three weeks. Significant water pooling, root rot and insect feeding are causing plant stand issues. When assessing a questionable plant stand it’s important to wait for all the seedlings to emerge. Do not rush when making a replant decision. Soybeans have the ability to adapt to thin stands. If there are 100 000 plants per acre the field should be left alone (120 000 on heavy clay). If plant stands are very thin the best approach is to seed right on top of the existing stand. The final population should not exceed 225 000 plants per acre as a maximum so a supplemental seeding rate of 125 000 seeds per acre is usually adequate. Use the same variety if possible; this will reduce maturity differences in the fall.
To view these articles online, please visit us on the web at http://www.ridgetownc.com/agrilink/agrilink_tektalk.cfm