From OMAF Field Crop Report
Cereals: Peter Johnson
Wheat harvest is underway as quickly as fields become ready. Growers are heeding advice to combine at the very first opportunity, and not allow the crop to deteriorate further. Yields are EXCELLENT, from 80 to 100 bu/ac, and highest reports over 120. Quality is extremely variable. Grades range from #2 to sample, with grading factors including sprouts, black point, mildew, green kernels, and Fusarium. Fusarium levels are “close” in most regions, allowing growers to blow tombstone kernels out and often improve the grade of the grain. Current high temperatures will stop the spread of Fusarium, and allow growers a better opportunity to harvest a quality crop.
Late tillers and green kernels are causing harvest headaches and downgrading. Drying the crop and storing the grain on farm will help these kernels disappear. Waiting on these tillers to mature is not an option: most are 2 weeks from maturity: the rest of the crop will suffer badly if harvest is delayed.
Spring cereals are well into grain-fill. Initial infection from Fusarium is very high in both barley and spring wheat. The current heat wave will reduce yields as it shortens grain-fill, but will improve quality as Fusarium spread will cease.
Corn: Greg Stewart
Some big CHU accumulations this week (200!) and many locations move to being 5-10 % ahead of normal. Heat and good soil moisture supply has resulted in very rapid corn growth and a significant number of fields are at VT (tassel emergence) and moving rapidly to R1 (silk emergence).
Although ear row number and potential kernel number are determined by V11 the actual number of kernels that are formed is positively influenced by high photosynthetic rates during the pollination period.
Some damage by high winds and hail have been reported but corn recovery in most areas has been better than expected. Significant hail damage (40% defoliation) in the week or two prior to tassel emergence often causes yield reductions less than 15%. Picture: Significant hail damage near Zurich on July 10
Factors that improve the odds of a tassel time fungicide application being profitable: leaf diseases present, corn after corn in rotation, high levels of crop residue on soil surface, higher levels of rainfall, and higher corn prices.
Canola/Edible Beans: Brian Hall
Edible Beans: The majority of edible beans are in late vegetative to early flowering stage. Stress on edible beans from excess moisture, poor drainage conditions, soil compaction and root rot are very evident with uneven growth and yellowing of plants. There is no good control for root rot once plants are infected. Infected plants try to compensate by producing new lateral roots above the existing root system. In wide row beans where the harvest method is to pull and windrow, inter-row cultivation to hill up loose soil around plants can help. Foliar fertilizer can provide temporary relief from poor functioning root system, but there have been few trials to support its use. Applying a small amount of nitrogen fertilizer may help stimulate new root development, particularly where nitrogen was lost from excess rainfall. Higher rates of nitrogen can stimulate heavy vine development, inhibit nodule formation and create conditions for white mould.
Canola: Earliest spring canola fields have finished flowering and have good pod set. Remainder of crop generally has thin crop canopy, highly variable growth and reduced flowering and pod set. Swede midge damage is particularly heavy in Dufferin County and the New Liskeard area. The effects of earlier stress to the crop from heavy rains, flea beetles, root rot, and swede midge are now being compounded by hot, dry conditions. The risk now of significant sclerotinia will be low due to open crop canopy and hot dry weather.