By the OMAFRA Field Crops Team
A large majority of the winter wheat crop has progressed beyond the post-flowering stage, and spraying for Fusarium Head Blight protection has been completed in many regions. Stripe rust is reported to be advancing in some areas in fields that did not receive a fungicide application. Significant yield loss can occur in cases where disease pressure is very high. Fields that received a T1 or T2 herbicide application are reported to be still holding disease pressure back well. True Armyworm has been observed in some fields, but not at levels that have required control. Growers are encouraged to watch for head clipping feeding. Clover stands in winter wheat look excellent.
A large majority of the crop ranges from the V3-V5 stages. In general, growers and agronomists in many areas report that plant stands and crops look great. The exception is some localized, heavier textured soil regions where planting conditions of earlier planted corn may have been pushed, and replanting is occurring. Sidedressing has started or is well underway in many areas.
OMAFRA recently completed its annual PSNT measurement survey from June 5-6. Average soil nitrate concentrations were 8.0 ppm, which is lower than the 11-12 ppm range that has been observed over the past 5 years, suggesting N mineralization may be delayed from the cooler spring. The last year when PSNT survey values were in this range was 2011.
With the recent warm weather, growers and applicators are reminded to check corn herbicide labels for maximum temperature restrictions. Of particular note, spraying of hormonal herbicides (ie. dicamba) should be avoided when temperatures are expected to be above 25°C during or after application.
With the exception of a few localized pockets where wet conditions have prevailed and planting continues, the majority of the soybean crop has been planted. The majority of crop is in the 1-2 trifoliate stage. While stands look reasonable in many cases, some replanting continues in areas which received heavy rainfalls after planting where crusting was evident (particularly on fine textured soils), as well as areas where Seedcorn Maggot pressure was high and reduced populations. A uniform population as low as 100,000 plants per acre is still considered to provide good yield potential.
Planting conditions have been reported to be good for late planted or replanted soybeans. Bean leaf beetles and soybean aphids have been observed in some fields, but at very low populations where control is not warranted. If soybeans are to be rolled after planting, rolling should occur at the 1st to 2nd trifoliate stage where plants are no longer brittle and susceptible to snapping, and ideally in the heat of the day when plants are flaccid. High stands losses can occur when plants are crisp and susceptible to snapping between the emergence and the 1st trifoliate stage. When in doubt, check plants after starting to roll and evaluate the stand for snapped plants which will no longer be viable.
Growers are reporting excellent yields for first cut hay. First cut hay timed for higher quality has neared completion in many regions. In general, there has been a good weather window for first cut in most parts of the province for both haylage/silage and dry hay, and harvest progressed quickly as a result.
While a small amount of canola planting was still being reported in some areas up until the end of last week, most planting is complete and the majority of crop across most growing regions is in the 3-4 leaf stage. Swede Midge emergence was being reported as early as late May, and was occurring prior to Canola emergence in some fields. Growers are encouraged to place and monitor Swede Midge traps. The control threshold is 20 adults across all traps in a field, and has been met in some fields this spring.
Flea beetle pressure has been apparent in some fields, with some control being warranted. As the crop progresses beyond the 3-4 leaf stage, Canola is generally able to keep ahead of feeding. While Cabbage Seed Pod weevil has been observed in some fields, it is not typically an issue until pod set starts.
Edible bean planting is reported to be nearly complete with an estimated 95% of intended acres planted. Planting progressed very quickly once started, with a large amount of crop planted in a relatively narrow window. Planting conditions have been reported to be good.
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This Report includes data from WIN and Environment Canada.