From the OMAFRA Field Crop Report
Cereals: Peter Johnson
Spring Cereals: Finally! Two good harvest days late last week wrapped up the majority of the spring cereal harvest. Yields are exceptional, and many growers are now considering spring cereals next year rather than winter wheat this fall, with the late soybean crop. This is ridiculous. If growers get a chance to plant winter wheat, it should be the crop of choice, except in the shortest season areas. High yields of spring cereals in 2014 were a function of the abnormally cool summer, and the probability of that weather pattern repeating is extremely slim. Grow winter wheat if at all possible.
Winter Cereals: Wheat planting is underway as bean harvest and wet soils from heavy rainfall accumulations allow. We are now into the “normal” window for wheat planting in much of the province. Target 1.5 million seeds/ac (1.8 million on heavy clay) during the optimum timing window for your area (see http://bit.ly/omafrawheat1 , page 93, OMAFRA 811:Agronomy Guide). For every 5 days beyond the optimum date, increase seeding rate by 100,000 seeds/acre.
With the increase in glyphosate resistant fleabane, and its rapid spread across Ontario, weed control strategies need to be re-thought. Fall weed control becomes a MUST!! Glyphosate + Eragon will control rosette stage fleabane when applied preplant in wheat. Research by Dr. Peter Sikkema (Ridgetown Campus, University of Guelph) indicates that ¼ l/ac of dicamba gives excellent fleabane control without wheat injury: but the impact of overlaps (0.5 l/ac dicamba) is unknown. If wheat emerges before the field can be sprayed, Infinity will control fleabane in an emerged wheat crop.
Corn: Greg Stewart
Cold temps occurred across the province September 19th but frost damage was limited mainly to the Collingwood, Dundalk, Alliston areas and east of Brockville. Low temperatures reached the minus 2-3 C range in some of these locations. Leaf damage was extensive but stalk and shank damage was restricted mainly to the coldest areas. A killing frost (stems and leaves) that occurs at the one-half milk line will reduce yields by about 10%. With a return to warm temperatures the majority of the corn in the province continues to progress towards maturity. Much of the corn that was planted in the end of May or first few days of June is just now approaching half-milk line.
Leaf diseases are prevalent in many locations. This is a good time to evaluate hybrids for their resistance to leaf diseases particularly Northern Corn Leaf Blight. In some areas leaf disease may contribute to stalk cannibalization and increase lodging risks. Scout fields and prioritize harvest of fields suffering from stalk cannibalization first.
In some parts of the province Western Bean Cutworm feeding on the ear may contribute to ear mould development. This has been reported in West Lorne, Bothwell, Dresden etc. Fields should be scouted for ear damage, mould growth and potential vomitoxin development in the grain.
If warm, drier conditions persist monitor silage whole plant moistures. In a typical year, corn silage at this stage dries approximately ½ % per day. Therefore, if the sample was 70% moisture, and 65% moisture is the target, harvest should be done about 10 days after the corn was sampled. Be aware, however, that in dry, relatively warm conditions silage moistures may drop more quickly that ½ % per day. Alternatively, many parts of the province have saturated soils which may delay the dry down. Watch whole plant soil moisture carefully to not miss your target harvest moisture.
Northern Leaf Blight
Most widespread of the diseases
Elliptical shaped lesions usually begin on lower leaves
Recent research shows an increase in races of this disease which bypass resistant genes
Significant yield impact when infection is high or begins early
Edible Beans: Brian Hall
Edible bean harvest is at 10-20% complete, 10-14 days behind normal. Cool, wet and cloudy weather has slowed dry down and activity of preharvest herbicides. Quality has been excellent to date and seed moistures have been good, giving some flexibility in harvest timing. Yields have varied widely with planting date and seasonal rainfall. Yields of 20-30 cwt/acre have been commonly reported. Patience during harvest is key to a quality product, which minimizes staining and dirt tag.
Glyphosate is not a desiccant and is best used for perennial weed control. Staging of fields requiring a pre-harvest herbicide application should be according to the green immature areas of the field to avoid quality issues. The other option is to treat and harvest green immature areas of a field separately. Contamination of harvested beans with other crops (corn, soybeans, wheat) is becoming an increasing concern for end markets for allergens or GMO contaminants.